Wonderful Biography Of Mahatma Gandhi In English, Wonderful 20 Informations

Wonderful Biography Of Mahatma Gandhi In English

Introduction to Mahatma Gandhi

Wonderful Biography Of Mahatma Gandhi In English
Wonderful Biography Of Mahatma Gandhi In English
Name Mahatma Gandhi
real name / surname Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi / Bapu
Date of birth October 02
birth place Porbandar, Gujarat (India)
date of death 30 January
name of mother and father Putlibai / Karamchand Gandhi
Wife Kasturba Gandhi
Son –  Harilal Gandhi, Manilal Gandhi, Ramdas Gandhi, Devdas Gandhi.
achievement 1942 – Father of the Nation of India
Profession / Country Lawyer / India


To read this article in Hindi, click here.

इस आर्टिकल को हिंदी में पढ़ने के लिए यहां क्लिक करें।

Today everyone tries to follow Gandhi’s teachings of truth and non-violence and gets inspired by his life.

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born on October 2, 1869, in a Gujarati Modi Bania family of the Vaish varna, in Porbandar, a seaside town on the Kathiawar peninsula that was formerly part of the small princely state of Porbandar in the Kathiawar Agency.

His grandfather, Karamchand Uttamchand Gandhi (1822–1885), was the Diwan (Chief Minister) of the state. Gandhiji’s family had a liberal religious background. Gandhi’s mother Putlibai was from a staunch Vaishnava Hindu family, while his father Karamchand was a Hindu. His mother was from the Pranami tradition of the medieval Krishna Bhakti sect.

His mother Putlibai was the fourth wife of Karamchand ji and a pious person. Living with his mother gave him the opportunity to develop a kind, loving and selfless commitment to God that remained with Mahatma Gandhi throughout his life.

The full name of Mahatma Gandhi was Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. Gandhiji was the youngest of three brothers and had two brothers.

Gandhi’s early education

Gandhi received his early education while living in Porbandar, where he was born. Gandhiji completed his middle school only after this.

Gandhiji’s father was transferred to Rajkot as a result of which he completed his incomplete education there. Then a few years later, in 1887, Gandhiji graduated from Rajkot High School and joined Samaldas College in Bhavnagar to continue his education. He returned to Porbandar as he could not concentrate on his studies due to being away from home.

Gandhiji’s married life

Gandhiji In 1883, when he was only thirteen years old, Gandhiji married Kasturba Makhanji. Gandhiji shortened her name to Kasturba and later came to fondly call her “Baa”. Kasturba Gandhi’s father was a successful businessman.

Before her marriage, Kasturba Gandhi was illiterate; However, after their union, Gandhiji taught her to read and write. Kasturba Gandhi was the best wife, she supported Gandhiji in everything he did.

Education of Mahatma Gandhi

When he was 19, or in 1888, he went to London for further studies and earned a bachelor’s degree in law. Gandhiji joined the London Vegetarian Society in England and started attending its conferences. During his stay in London, Gandhi began writing for local newspapers and magazines. Gandhiji spent a total of three years (1888–1891) in England. In these three years, Gandhiji completed his law studies by staying in London.

In London, Gandhi held meetings with prominent figures of the Theosophical Society. The association was founded in 1875 to promote universal brotherhood and included the Sanatana Dharma, a collection of Buddhist texts.

Gandhiji returned to his native land in 1891 after completing his education.

start of practice

After contacting the Bar Association of England and Wales, Gandhi returned to Mumbai, where he began his legal studies. Gandhiji applied for a job as a teacher for a while, but was refused due to lack of success in Bombay.

Gandhi had to start drafting petitions to enlist his support, but he eventually had to stop this too. Mahatma Gandhi traveled to South Africa in 1893 on a one-year assignment. This lobbying contract was signed in South Africa with Natal, a company affiliated with the British government.

Mahatma Gandhi’s visit to South Africa

He was offered a job as a legal advisor by a South African business. Gandhi agreed to the offer and went to Africa, where he spent the next 20 years of his life. Gandhi had to deal with prejudice against Indians in South Africa. Despite having a first class ticket, he was denied a third class seat and thrown off the train. Not only this, when another European passenger entered the carriage by the ladder, the driver had to beat him. He had to face many challenges throughout his journey.

He was refused entry in many hotels across Africa.

Similarly, this was another instance where the judge of the court asked him to remove his turban but he disobeyed. All these incidents that happened to Gandhiji changed the direction of his life, awakened consciousness towards social injustice and helped explain social activism.

After witnessing the mistreatment of Indians in Africa, Gandhi began to worry about the honor of his countrymen and his position in his own country under the British Empire.

Gandhiji was so shocked by the injustice and apartheid that he decided to speak out against it at the same time. After this Gandhiji started criticizing African apartheid.

Gandhiji founded the Civil Disobedience Movement in 1913 to protest against the £3 tax imposed on Indians living in South Africa. Gandhiji triumphed in this movement, which brought him global acclaim.

Arrival of Mahatma Gandhi in India

Gandhiji returned to India in the year 1915 at the age of 46, and studied to know the condition of India.

Gandhiji had to undergo a year of inactivity at the request of his political mentor, Gopal Krishna Gokhale. He traveled to India to learn more about the real situation in the country at this time. Gandhiji established the Sabarmati Ashram in Ahmedabad in 1916.

When Gandhiji reached India from South Africa, he was welcomed with open arms.

Gandhiji and his wife Kasturba Gandhi traveled across India and became familiar with the problems faced by the people. On this tour, he was surprised to see the condition of his country, the level of poverty and the population. After this Gandhiji started the National Liberation Movement.

freedom struggle of indians

In 1916, E. Gandhiji started his activities after returning to India. He voiced his opinions during the Indian National Congress session, but they were based on Gopal Krishna Gokhale, an important Indian leader of the Congress party, and on major political and social issues in India at the time.

Major movements of Gandhiji

 1. Satyagraha movement in Champaran and Kheda

The Satyagraha movements in Champaran and Kheda were the ones where Gandhi received the most support. Due to the patronage of the British power, the landlords in Champaran and Kheda were taking advantage of the deprived farmers. Gandhiji started Satyagraha in protest against the mistreatment of farmers. As a result, he was taken into custody and allowed to leave the area. However, with lakhs of people coming out on the road, the British administration was forced to release the captives immediately. After the Satyagraha of Champaran and Kheda, Gandhiji saved poor farmers from the crime of landlords, which changed the perception of people towards him because of his selfless service to the common people.

Gandhiji first worked to restore the area and built schools and hospitals to win the trust of the residents. At that time, due to the noise, Gandhiji was imprisoned in the police station, which was opposed by the whole community and caused problems. The villagers also demonstrated in front of the police station and demanded that Gandhiji be detained there and then released without facing any legal consequences.

Gandhi oversaw protests and strikes against local landlords, who, with the help of the British government, began to support the struggling farmers of the region.

After contacting the Bar Association of England and Wales, Gandhi returned to Mumbai, where he began his legal studies.

Gandhiji applied for a job as a teacher for a while, but was refused due to lack of success in Bombay.

Gandhi had to start drafting petitions to enlist his support, but he eventually had to stop this too. Mahatma Gandhi traveled to South Africa in 1893 on a one-year assignment. This lobbying contract was signed in South Africa with Natal, a company affiliated with the British government.

Canceled the increase in income and collected it after signing contracts offering higher remuneration and control over farming.

Mahatma Gandhi was first detained from Palwal station.

 2. Khilafat movement of Gandhiji

Gandhi supported the Khilafat Movement, which was launched by the working class, Muslims and the underprivileged. The goal of this movement is to restore the Turkish Caliphate. Gandhiji’s participation in this struggle helped him to gain the respect of Muslims and Hindus.

3. Non-Cooperation Movement

On April 13, 1919, the day of Baisakhi, a meeting was planned to protest against the Rowlatt Act at Jallian Wala Bagh in Amritsar. Due to which a British commander named General Dyer opened fire on unwary citizens without provocation. As a result, more than 2000 people were injured and more than 1000 people who were present there were killed. Gandhiji was greatly hurt by this. Gandhiji decided to fight such incidents by adopting the path of non-violence and peace. In retaliation to this incident, Gandhiji started the Non-cooperation campaign.

4. Salt Movement, Dandi March and Civil Disobedience Movement

Under this campaign, the rules of the British government were implemented by Mahatma Gandhi, however, it was decided not to follow them. No other person or business is allowed to produce the salt under British government regulations. He defied the law by making salt by marching to Dandi on 12 March 1930. He did this after reaching the Dandi site.

5. Movement of Mahatma Gandhi to Quit India

The third largest protest against the British government was started by Mahatma Gandhi. ‘British Quit India’ was the name of this movement.

Throughout this struggle Gandhiji had to spend a lot of time in jail, but the young workers of the country continued to lead it through strikes and sabotage. It took more than a year for the government’s efforts to end this movement.

Death of Mahatma Gandhi (30 January 1948)

At 5:17 pm Nathuram Godse and his assistant Gopaldas shot Gandhiji dead at Birla House. Gandhiji was shot thrice on January 30, 1948, but he uttered the words “Hey Ram” just before he was killed. After his death, his mausoleum was built at Rajghat in New Delhi.

After the country’s independence on January 30, 1948, Gandhiji was on his way to a prayer meeting at Birla House in Delhi.

On the one hand, while the Hindu fundamentalists were mourning the death of Gandhiji, on the other hand, a wave of mourning over the death of Mahatma Gandhi ran across the country. Delhi served as the starting point for Mahatma Gandhi’s last journey. At that time more than 1,000,000 people went to pay their last respects and join the last journey. Gandhiji’s dream of uniting the country never materialized as he was cremated on the banks of the Yamuna.

For the purpose of preparing for competitive exams, here are the brief details:

  • The more common name of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi is Mahatma Gandhi. It is a popular name.
  • Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose gave him the title of “Father of the Nation”.
  • Rabindranath Tagore named him “Mahatma Gandhi”.
  • Gujar was his native language.
  • Mahatma Gandhi married Kasturba Makhanji when he was 13 years old.
  • During his lifetime, Mahatma Gandhi walked about 18 kilometers a day, or the equivalent of two world tours.
  • First advocated civil rights in South India.
  • During the First World War, which lasted from 1914 to 1919, the British government sought conditional assistance from Indian soldiers. Under that condition he had to make India independent after the war. However, it turned out to be nothing more than a hoax and Gandhi was enraged and decided to agitate.
  • Captured the Congress in 1920.
  • Captured the Indian National Congress in 1921.
  • Five times in the race for the Nobel Peace Prize.
  • He is credited with civil rights movements in 12 countries on four continents.
  • Britain issued postage stamps in his honor 21 years after his death.

         Champaran Satyagraha, the first Satyagraha of Mahatma Gandhi, 1917

  • At that time, farmers had to cultivate indigo on 3/20th (3 kattha in 20 kattha) contract, which is known as the Teen Kathia system.
  • Rajkumar Shukla invited Mahatma Gandhi because the farmers wanted it to end.
  • Then Satyagraha was started by Mahatma Gandhi.
  • This approach was discontinued after the government set up a commission of inquiry.
  • Farmers received 25% of the tax revenue
  • Rabindranath Tagore gave Mahatma Gandhi the nickname “Mahatma” because he was impressed by the effective leadership he displayed.
  • Later Subhash Chandra Bose gave him the title of “Father of the Nation”.

          Champaran Satyagraha of Mahatma Gandhi

  • Mahatma Gandhi’s Satyagraha was inspired by David Thoreau’s essay Disobedience.
  • Mahatma Gandhi did the first Satyagraha experiment in South Africa.
  • Gandhiji came to India from South Africa on January 9, 1918.
  • Gopal Krishna Gokhale was the political guru of Gandhiji.
  • Champaran, Bihar, was the site of the first Satyagraha in India.
  • On Gokhale’s advice, Gandhi traveled to India for two years in 1915 and 1916.
  • Between 1917 and 1918, he led three preparatory movements.

           Kheda Satyagraha 1918:

  • In 1918, there was a severe famine in the Kheda district of Gujarat.
  • Despite this, his government did not stop the process of revenue collection.
  • Recovery increased by 23%, and the revenue system stipulated that farmers should not be required to repay their loans if crop production was less than one-fourth of total production.
  • In response, Mahatma Gandhi announced that able-bodied farmers would voluntarily pay taxes if the government waived off the loans of poor farmers.
  • The government secretly instructed its officials to tax only able-bodied farmers.

             ahmedabad mill strike

  • There was a protest against the owners of the Indian textile mills.
  • Regarding the bonus, Mahatma Gandhi asked the laborers to go on hunger strike here and they also sat on hunger strike.
  • His first hunger strike resulted in a settlement between the mill owners and him.
  • The matter was taken to the tribunal, which awarded 35 per cent bonus to the workers.

            Khilafat movement

  • From 1919 to 1924, the Khilafat Movement in Pune tried to pressure the British into establishing a Caliphate in Turkey.
  • The All India Khilafat Committee was responsible for organizing the Khilafat Movement as a result of the Rowlatt Bill Jallianwala Bagh.
  • Gandhiji joined Congress in 1919 to improve the condition of Congress, when the condition of Congress was very bad.
  • Gandhiji made a successful attempt to unite Hindus and Muslims.
  • The Khilafat and Non-cooperation movements united under the influence of Mahatma Gandhi.

         End of Caliphate

  • On March 3, 1924, nationalist Mustafa Kalam abolished the Khilafat.
  • Avoiding the superficial cover of religion, Mahatma Gandhi recognized the foundation of Hindu-Muslim unity.
  • They had disagreements with each other, but there was also civilization, nation and unity.

       Non-Cooperation Movement 1920 –

  • Peace and non-violence were mainly used as weapons by the non-cooperation movement in 1920.
  • However, due to the Jallianwala Bagh incident, Mahatma Gandhi had to withdraw from this movement.
  • Mr. Chimanlal Setalvad claims that the Viceroy Lord wept and sat down on the reading chair holding his head in both hands in despair.
  • The very foundation of the British state was uprooted by that movement.
  • The intention was to completely shut down the machinery of governance and boycott the political, economic and social institutions of British India.
  • Beginning with the Calcutta session of the National Congress in 1920.

        Efforts made to make Mahatma Gandhi’s non-cooperation movement successful –

  • Resignation from official positions, honorary positions and unpaid positions
  • Not being a part of government ceremonies and courts.
  • Boycott the elections to be held as per the 1919 Act.
  • Abandonment of public and private educational establishments.
  • Boycott government activities.
  • import ban.

          Reason for the end of the movement:

Mahatma Gandhi said that it should be completely non-violent; However, the movement was suspended in February 1922 due to the Chauri-Chaura incident.

            Chori Chora Case –

  • Chori Chora case movement started in 1920.
  • Chauri is a city in Uttar Pradesh which was established on 4 February 1922 near Gorakhpur.
  • Gandhiji urged that no force should be used in this movement.
  • Here on February 4, 1922, Indian agitators set a police post of the British government on fire.
  • Because of which 22 policemen hiding in it were burnt alive.
  • This scandal is known as Chori-Chora scandal.
  • Dissatisfied with this, Mahatma Gandhi ended the non-cooperation movement.

      After the non-cooperation movement

  • Nehru Report 1928 Master Birkenhead India Secretary inspired public initiative to draft a constitution satisfactory to all
  • In the Madras meeting of 1927, it was concluded that the constitution should be drafted with the consent of other ideological groups.
  • On May 19, 1928, a meeting was held under the chairmanship of Dr. Ansari, in which a panel was formed under the chairmanship of Motilal Nehru, which was entrusted with the task of drafting the constitution.
  • The Nehru Panel submitted its report on 28 August 1928 and it was accepted in the meeting held in Lucknow.

       Suggestions of Nehru Board Report –

  • India should be given domain state status.
  • The public recruitment framework should be repealed.
  • united political race outline
  • Joint election system should be adopted.
  • India will have a mainstream state, yet the strict and social interests of the minorities will be fully protected.
  • Division of force in government premises between focuses and sectors.
  • Establishment of High Court in India.
  • Establishment of Union Public Service Commission.

           simon commission

  • This commission was constituted in 1927 to survey the Indian public authority performance of 1919.
  • The President was Sir John Simon.
  • Justification of war – There was not even a single Indian in this commission, so Indians felt that there would be bias in its report and the interests of the British would be served.
  • Blacklisting – In 1927, at the Madras meeting of the Congress, M.A. Ansari managed.
  • Presence in India – On 3 February 1928, the Simon Commission reached Mumbai, India.
  • Some facts related to Simon Commission –
  • When Lala Lajpat Rai was injured in the lathicharge in the Lahore incident, he said- “A single attack on me with lathis will prove to be the last nail in the coffin of the British rule.”
  • The commission visited India twice between 1928 and 1929. Further, presented its report in May 1930, which was to be considered at the Round Table Conference held in London.
  • Important suggestions of Simon Commission –
  • Diarchy in the regions should be abolished.
  • The views of the All India Union should not be accepted.
  • Verma should be separated from English India, it should have a separate constitution.

        Dandi March Salt Satyagraha by Mahatma Gandhi –

  • On March 12, 1930, Mahatma Gandhi undertook a 24-day padyatra from the Sabarmati Ashram with 78 devotees.
  • He reached Dandi on 5th April and violated the Salt Law on 6th April.
  • Subhash Chandra Bose compared it to Napoleon’s March 23 and Mussolini’s Rome March.
  • The Salt Satyagraha in Dharsana was conducted by Sarojini Naidu, the daughter of Imam Saheb Manilal Mahatma Gandhi.
  • The development in the North East was led by a 13-year-old Naga girl.
  • Jawaharlal Nehru gave her the title of ‘Queen’.
  • She is also known as the Joan of Arc of Nagaland .

          round table meeting

  • The first Round Table Conference was held in London in 1930 to examine the report of the Simon Commission.
  • 89 people took interest but Congress did not.
  • Mahatma Gandhi Irwin Pact
  • British politics wanted the support of Congress and Gandhiji, due to this, Viceroy Irwin agreement was signed between Gandhiji and Viceroy.
  • Objective of Mahatma Gandhi Irwin Settlement –
  • Under this, the Congress agreed to participate in the next Round Table Conference and to stop general non-compliance.
  • Second round table meeting
  • The next round of meetings took place in 1931, in which Mahatma Gandhi attended as a member of the Congress.
  • However, the general issue flopped due to controversy.

        Civil disobedience movement –

  • 1930, 6 April Bharatiya Janata Congress against English colonialism and originally under the authority of Mahatma Gandhi.
  • By composing the letter Youthful India, he established an eleven-direct interest towards the public authority and urged Satyagraha to stop talking about his interest.
  • Also, time was given till January 31, 1930.
  • The development of common rebellion began when the public authority did not accede to the requests.
  • Important projects were flouting salt regulation, non-installment of duties, blacklisting of unfamiliar products, surrender of taxpayer-run organisations, etc.
  • General Disobedience Development Goals –
  • Paying homage to the English Government by performing a completely conspicuous illegal display.
  • Impact The British government took drastic measures to stop the development and imprisoned many leaders like Gandhiji.

        Quit India Movement

  • Stop India development started on 9 August 1942. It was an important decision taken by Mahatma Gandhi to get India’s early independence in contrast to the British rule.
  • do or die basic mantra
  • Result – Even though this development could not succeed in making India autonomous, but it had wide consequences.
  • This is the reason why it has been named as “the last extraordinary act to be done for the independence of India”. ” Where did it go.
  • Mountbatten’s announcement In February 1947, Master Mountbatten was named Ambassador to India.
  • Then he said that English India should get independence but it will also be divided.

       The specialty of the events related to Mahatma Gandhi-

  • Were connected to the social and grassroots level.
  • There was a kind of development towards the issues related to the general public.
  • The development supported by Mahatma Gandhi used to be completely peaceful (peaceful).
  • Whenever there was violence, he used to end that development immediately.
  • Traditional pastoralists and standard persons were mainly engaged in the development.

          political life:

Gandhi’s most memorable achievements in the Champaran and Kheda Satyagraha in 1918 though expanded the food crops needed for his diet.

Progress in the development of food crops that yielded indigo was also important. The Indians who were abused by the force of the landlords (mostly English) were paid paltry wages, leaving them extremely destitute. The cities were appallingly dirty and unhealthy and rife with alcoholism, distance and purdah. Now facing severe starvation, to pay off the royal treasury, the British imposed harsh duties, the burden of which gradually increased.

Kheda, Gujarat also had a similar issue. Gandhiji built an ashram there where a large number of his associates and new workers were assimilated. He made a definite report and study of those cities in which appalling incidents of barbarism to animals and the wretched general condition of persons were recorded. Relying on the local people, he began his work by cleaning up the town, building schools and clinics, and activating the town administration to eliminate a significant number of the social wrongs referred to earlier.

Gandhi returned to India in 1936 with the Nehru administration and the Lahore meeting of the Congress. Nonetheless, it was Gandhi’s clear wish to concentrate on achieving autonomy, not on speculating about India’s future. This did not stop the Congress from adopting communism as its goal. Gandhi had differences with Subhash Bose, who was elected to the presidency in 1938. The main points of conflict between Gandhi and Bose were Bose’s lack of commitment to majoritarian rule and lack of faith in peace. Bose won a second term despite Gandhi’s criticism but left the Congress when all Indian leaders abandoned the principles adopted by Gandhi.

In 1934, Gandhiji left the membership of the Congress. Instead of political activities, he now focused on working for the country through ‘useful projects’. He began to educate provincial India, advance development against distance, travel, travel, travel and other bungalow ventures and create a schooling system tailored to the needs of the people. Gandhi died in February 1924 after being captured during the Non-Cooperation Movement and stayed away from dynamic political issues until 1928. During this he took part in bridging the differences between Swaraj Party and Congress and also fought against immorality, alcohol abuse. , oblivion and destruction.

 ‘Quit India’ became one of the most notable events of the freedom struggle, in which vandalism and occupation were witnessed far and wide. Many political dissidents were either killed or injured in the fighting, and thousands were captured. Gandhiji made it clear that he would not support the British struggle efforts unless India was given early autonomy. He also said that this development will not stop despite personal violence. He accepted that winning the political movement of people’s power in the country is more dangerous than the actual rebellion. Gandhiji asked all the delegates and Indians to maintain discipline with calmness along with do or die.

       Social life of Mahatma Gandhi

  • Mahatma Gandhi lived the life of a traditional man even though he was creative.
  • Mahatma Gandhi focused on governance and administration while living in London, lived in the climate there, yet when he came to India, he used to take a completely Indian form.
  • His infinity dresses used to be extremely straight forward and even more basic than straight.
  • He was an admirer of truth and peace.
  • He accepted God-Allah equally for all, and prayed to God for everyone to be satisfied and prosperous.
  • Social Correspondent
  • Mahatma Gandhi wanted to break the bond of high and low among the general public.
  • In many incidents, he talked about tolerating everyone equally by leaving high-low qualification-contact-distance etc.
  • Denial of the work of atonement
  • Mahatma Gandhi was an admirer of truth and peace, so he accepted and opposed the external showiness etc. spread among the general public.

Slogans of Mahatma Gandhi

    • “do or die”
    • “Violence is the ultimate religion”
    • “I am ready to suffer every humiliation, complete boycott, even death, to save the movement from turning violent.”
    • “See no evil, hear no evil, and speak no evil”
    • “simple living, high thinking”

names of books of mahatma gandhi

  1. experiment of truth or autobiography
  2. my life story
  3. Ram Naam
  4. India of my dreams
  5. short biography
  6. History of Satyagraha in South Africa
  7. Geeta Bodh
  8. Bapu’s lesson
  9. Hind Swaraj

Frequently Asked Questions on Mahatma Gandhi

Question – When was Mahatma Gandhi born?

Answer: Mahatma Gandhi was born on 02

Question – When was Mahatma Gandhi born?

Answer: Mahatma Gandhi was born on 02

Porbandar, Gujarat (India) in October 1869.

Question – For what reason is Mahatma Gandhi popular?

Answer: Mahatma Gandhi is known as the father of India in 1942.

Question – What was the full name of Mahatma Gandhi?

Answer: The full name of Mahatma Gandhi was Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi.

Question – When did Mahatma Gandhi died?

Answer: Mahatma Gandhi died on 30 January 1948.

Question – What was the name of Mahatma Gandhi’s father?

Answer: Mahatma Gandhi’s father’s name was Karamchand Gandhi.

Question- For what reason is Mahatma Gandhi called the father of the nation?

Answer: Subhash Chandra Bose had called Mahatma Gandhi the father of the country from the very beginning, after which the government of India also remembered it and Mahatma Gandhi became the father of the country i.e. the father of the country.

Question – What was the goal of Mahatma Gandhi?

Answer: The aim of Mahatma Gandhi was to inculcate a sense of truth and peace among the individuals.

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